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ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IN INDIA


“THE EARTH PROVIDES ENOUGH TO SATISFY EVERY MAN’S NEEDS OUT BUT NOT EVERY MAN’S GREED”, MAHATMA GANDHI

Mehak Qayoom Khan

‘Environmental pollution’ has become today one of the biggest menaces of the modern civilized world. The developed countries are engaged in abusing the limited natural resources for their pomp splendours and luxury while the underdeveloped countries are tapping these resources for their existence and to achieve some development. in 1972, the UN conference on Human Environment  focussed worldwide attention on the environmental hazards that threaten human beingsAccording to C.C park  “Environment refers to the sum total of conditions which surround man at a given point in space and time” for descriptive purpose,Environment has been divided into  components (1)  Physical = Water, Air, Soil, Housing wastes etc.(2)  Biological= Plants and Animals including Bacteria. (3)  Social= Customs, Culture, Religion etc.As per study based on 2016 data at least 140 million people in India breathe air that is 10 times over the WHO safe limit. 51% of pollution is caused by industrial pollution, 27%by vehicles, 17% by crop burning and 5% by Diwali firework


CAUSES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

According to “Southwick”(1976), Human population explosion is the main cause of pollution He pointed out that with more sewage, more solid wastes, more fuel being burnt more fertilizers and insecticides being used to produce more food for a hungry mouth.

 INDUSTRIALISATION IS THE GREATEST MENACE OF POLLUTION: Man is forced to set up more factories Coal is called the “Black Diamond” and Oil “Liquid Gold”Both are valuable fuels but over the past 50 years, nearly half-known reserves of coal and oil in the world have been burnt.Burning of Agricultural wastes and Destruction of forests: Recent investigation indicates that tropical grassland fires and burning agricultural wastes contribute almost as much pollution as many factories. There are 2000 million hectares of burnable land in the world in form of permanent meadows and pastures.. Rapid population growth. Human greed and ignorance 
Prevention of Environmental Pollution :Article 48(A): of the constitution gives direction to the states to protect the environment Article 51(A) and 51(B): says states shall protect and preserve natural resources like forests rivers etc. In 1974 the Water (prevention and Control Board) Act was passed to prevent water pollution. The (Air pollution and control Board) was passed in 1981 to control air pollution.Legislative measures:The national Environmental Tribunal Act – 1995 The environmental (Protection) Act 1986 – The government of India enacted the (EPA) under article – 253 of the constitution after Bhopal Gas Tragedy.The Forest conservation act (1980) under this prior approval of central government is essential for diversion of forest land for non-forestry purpose.Other Major legislative Measures: undertaken since 1972 are:National conservation strategy and policy statement on environmental development 1992National Forest policy 1988In the end, it may be noted that strategies alone cannot work for themselves.

Making all these strategies work depends on a more basic change in the way we think about ourselves and our world. We can also take steps like using public transport, recycle reuse, no use to plastic, avoiding the use of crackers etc. Thus, there is a need to transform “Our Ego Centric outlook to Eco Centric outlook”                                             


                           

 (The writer is civil service aspirant and currently doing her graduation )